As GitHub this is also web based environment around git repositories,
Beside providing a centralized, cloud-based location where teams can store, share, publish, test, and collaborate on development projects using git. GitLab adds an web based administration and integration tools. In contrast to GitHub, GitLab is also install-able to be self hosted.
GitLab is a web-based repository manager that lets teams collaborate on code, duplicate code to safely create and edit new projects, then merge finished code into existing projects. GitLab is written in the Ruby programming language and includes a Wiki and issue-tracking features. It has different versions: GitLab Community Edition (CE), Enterprise Edition (EE), and a GitLab-hosted version, GitLab.com. It’s got over 1400 contributors and is used by major organizations like Alibaba, NASA, CERN, and more.
Its permissions, branch protection, and authentication features are what really make it stand out. Teams can secure projects on a more granular level, and projects are kept even safer while they’re being worked on.
Its special features include:
- It’s free and open-source.
- Different hosting options: Self-hosted with the Core, Starter, Premium and Ultimate plans, and GitLab hosted SaaS options with the Free, Bronze, Silver and Gold plans.
- A convenient user interface enables users to access everything from one screen: projects, latest projects, users, latest users, groups, and stats.
- Settings allow users to control whether a repository is public or private.
- “Snippet support” lets users share small pieces of code from a project, without sharing the whole project.
- Protected branches are a new way to keep code safe. They allow users to set higher permissions on a project, so only certain people are able to push, force push, or delete code in a branch.
- Authentication levels take this security a step further, allowing users to give people access beyond a read/write level. For example, you can give a team member access to issue tracking without having to give them access to the code itself.
- Improved milestones enable you to set milestones at a group level, not just a developer-specific level. Developers can get insight into the whole team’s scope and view the entire project’s milestones, not just their own.
- With the “Work in Progress” status, developers can label a project
WIPto let collaborators know that the code is unfinished. This prevents it from accidentally getting merged with other code before it’s finished.
- You can attach files like comments to any communications in GitLab.
- Kubernetes cluster monitoring with the Ultimate, Silver, and Gold hosting plans
- Integration with Jira, Confluence, Trello, Jenkins and more.
The best way is to just check it out but at first I will give some graphical impression of how to work with the GitLab Web-view.
This is the start page and shows all your projects or projects you are a member of.
The code view in GitLab is nearly the same a s known from GitHub. You can browse through the directory structure, show file contents, change branches, tags or use the version history...
Your work can be planed and controlled using the integrated issue tracker with labels, assignees, milestones...
Really great is also a simple planning board to organize the big list of issues better.
Through CI/CD Pipelines you can define automatic tasks with specific triggers. Also a direct look into the pipeline output (necessary in case of errors) is possible and you can see the whole command line output.
Members of a group or project can have one of the following access levels:
- Guest to look into and create issues or add comments
- Reporter to manage and assign issues
- Developer to make commits and work with branches, merges
- Maintainer to add team members and manage CI/CD
- Owner to switch visibility and delete part or whole project
In the default the
master branch can also only be merged and pushed by the maintainer. But this may be changed under Settings -> Repository.
External users can only access projects to which they are explicitly granted access, thus hiding all other internal or private ones from them. Access can be granted by adding the user as member to the project or group.
Instead of merging using
git on the console or in your UI tool, It can be also done through the graphical website.
To do this the last changes have to be pushed to the origin server (GitLab).
- Open the project you want to merge to in GitLab
- Select "New merge request" on the right side
- Now select the source branch and target branch
- Click on the "Compare branches and continue" button and fill out the form
- Click on the "Submit merge request" button
A repository is great but together with continuous integration and continuous delivery/deployment it can also make your work easier and faster.
By giving a
.gitlab-ci.yml configuration within the project this can be setup.
The YAML file defines a set of jobs with constraints stating when they should be run.
The stages build the basic phases which are mostly the technical steps like:
- build - compile, transform, pack code
- test - unit test
- upload - copy to server or repository
- deploy - make active on server
- accept - final test on server
While each of them may contain multiple jobs for different networks (test/staging/production) or different environments (debian/redhat/macos) this makes the following structure:
Like displayed different branches and different circumstances like if a tag was made trigger different jobs and environments. In the diagram changes in feature branch will do nothing, while changes to development branch will trigger complete update of the test system. And if a tag is set the staging system will be updated (deploy is a manual task to decide the concrete time). And only if the master is changed the production will be targeted (also with manual activation).
Jobs are picked up by runners and executed within the environment of the runner. What is important, is that each job is run independently from each other. They may contain
dependencies which share
artefacts and you can specify when to do what. So you may fully automated deploy on test while the production system is only build with changes in master which have a tag set. Additionally the deploy on production may be a manual task which wait for you to click the play button in the GitLab web UI.
The following examples are working with docker images so you need a working docker runner within your GitLab (mostly default).
The complete pipeline is configured using this single YAML file. See the GitLab Commands for a detailed description.
At first you define the possible stages and all variables or settings which are common for most jobs, you may also define the default docker image:
stages: - build - upload - deploy - approve image: btmash/alpine-ssh-rsync variables: UPLOAD_FOLDER: /opt/upload
Then you define the jobs like:
approve-t: stage: approve image: appropriate/curl dependencies: - deploy-t script: - curl -v $TEST_URL/gui
You may use some YAML anchor templates to do common tasks like:
.template-ssh: &ssh_job before_script: # setup ssh - mkdir -p ~/.ssh - chmod 700 ~/.ssh - echo -e "Host *\n\tStrictHostKeyChecking no\n\n" > ~/.ssh/config - echo "$SSH_PRIVATE_KEY" > ~/.ssh/id_rsa - chmod 600 ~/.ssh/id_rsa deploy-t: stage: deploy dependencies: - upload-t <<: *ssh_job script: # deploy - ssh $TEST_SSH rm -rf /opt/myapp - ssh $TEST_SSH cp -rL $UPLOAD_FOLDER/myapp-$CI_PIPELINE_ID /opt/myapp # restart - ssh $TEST_SSH sudo systemctl restart myapp.service
image: silentstorm/pandoc-mkdocs before_script: - pip install --upgrade pip - pip install mkdocs-material - pip install pymdown-extensions - pip install markdown-blockdiag - pip install markdown-include - pip install mkdocs-mk2pdf-plugin pages: stage: deploy script: - mkdocs build - rm -rf public - mv site public artifacts: paths: - public interruptible: true
The before script updates all the
mkdocs code to the newest version. Within the
pages section the html will be made, moved to the public path and this is made accessible for gitlab as artifacts. All the rest will gitlab do by itself and update your pages.
This is a great tool which really helps in the complete process of software development and brings all the basics and most of the enhanced features in the free version. If that is not enough you may switch to one of the paid version with which you get all the enterprise features, too.