# Regular Expressions¶

A regular expression (shortened as regex or regexp) is a sequence of characters that define a search pattern. This can be used to search, parse and replace strings on which it is applied to. The expression itself is a language of itself and very powerful.

But the possibilities and interpretation of regular expressions depend strongly on the used engine. There are multiple engines having some common syntax but differ in many ways. Often the regular expression is put into delimiters like /.../. See the concrete language implementation therefore, but they sometimes can be changed.

The following will show the basics but for further information you may also look into: https://www.regular-expressions.info

## Syntax¶

Most characters are searched in the form they are in the expression but some which have special meaning have to be masked with an \ before to not have their special meaning.

Pattern Example Meaning
.m 1. Example The . matches any character but not the newline and return character.
\.m 1. Example Match the . character.
e|a 1. Example Alternatives are written with a | between.

### Special Characters¶

Pattern Character
\\ A masked \ character to prevent the special meaning.
\t Match a tabulator stop character.
\r Match a carriage return character.
\n Match a newline character.
\v Match a vertical tabulator character.
\f Match a form feed character.
\cX Match a control character like \cM.
\xHH Match an ASCII character where HH is the hexadecimal number.
\uHHHH Match an unicode character where HHHH is the hexadecimal number.
[\b] Match a backspace character (the brackets are necessary to not differ from word boundary).
\< Match the start of a word. (not supported in all engines)
\> Match the end of a word. (not supported in all engines)

### Character Classes¶

Info

[] makes a character class matching any of the characters within

[^] negative character class matching any not contained characters

Pattern Example Meaning
[^] Matches really any character, also the newline.
\d or [0-9] or [[:digit:]] 1. Example Match any digit.
\D or [^0-9] 1. Example Match any character but digits.
[[:xdigit:]] or [A-Fa-f0-9] Hexadecimal digits
[[:ascii:]] or [\x00-\x7F] ASCII characters
[[:alpha:]] or [A-Za-z] Alphabetic characters
[[:alnum:]] or [A-Za-z0-9] Alphanumeric characters
\w or [A-Za-z0-9_] or [[:word:]] 1. Example Matches any alphanumeric character or the underscore.
\W or [^A-Za-z0-9_] 1. Example Matches all characters which are not alphanumeric or underscore.
[[:lower:]] or [a-z] Lowercase letters
[[:upper:]] or [A-Z] Uppercase letters
[[:cntrl:]] or [\x00-\x1F\x7F] Control characters
[[:graph:]] or [\x21-\x7E] Visible characters
[[:print:]] or [\x20-\x7E] Visible characters and the space character
\s or [[:space:]] 1. Example Matches all space like characters which are [ \f\n\r\t\v​\u00a0\u1680​\u180e\u2000​\u2001\u2002​\u2003\u2004​ \u2005\u2006​\u2007\u2008​\u2009\u200a​\u2028\u2029​​\u202f\u205f​\u3000].
\S 1. Example Opposite of \s.
[[:blank:]] or [ \t] Space and tab
[[:punct:]] or [][!"#$%&'()*+,./:;<=>?@\^_{|}~-] Punctuation characters ### Boundaries¶ Pattern Example Meaning ^. 1. Example Match only at the start of text with ^. .$ 1. Example Match only at the end of text with $. \b Match a word boundary (before or after a word). \B Match a only if no word boundary (before or after a word). ### Quantifiers¶ Pattern Example Meaning $\d* in $$</mark> it will cost <mark>$$128 The character before (here a digit) is matched 0 or multiple times.
$\d+ in$ it will cost $128 The character before (here a digit) has to match at least one times. $\d? in $$</mark> it will cost <mark>$$128 The character before (here a digit) is matched 0 or one time.
$\d*? in $$</mark> it will cost <mark>$$128 The character before (here a digit) is matched 0 or multiple times, but will match as less as possible. $\d+? in $it will cost$128 The character before (here a digit) has to match at least one times, but will match as less as possible.
\b\d{2}\b 1, 10, 100, 1000 Match the character before exactly num times.
\b\d{2,3}\b 1, 10, 100, 1000 Match the character before between min and max times.
\b\d{2,}\b 1, 10, 100, 1000 Match the character before at least min times.
\b\d{,2}\b 1, 10, 100, 1000 Match the character before not more than max times.

In most engines regular expressions are greedy meaning they will match as much as possible. The last two matches will force a non-greedy use in which the interpretation will stop as soon as possible.

### Groups¶

They can be used to collect the match for later use or for limiting the alternation. Each group gets a number under which the match is stored. this is always the order in which the groups are opened.

Pattern Example Meaning
(...) one, two, three Match all three character words and store them in variable $1. \b(a|an)\b it's an old... Thé group is used to make an alternation between a fixed pattern. (.)h\1 I here oho and aha With back references using the group number the same match has to occur again. \b(?:a|an)\b it's an old... If a group starts with ?: its match is not stored and counted as result (also called non-capturing or shy-group). a(?>b|db)c abcc or abc The atomic non-capturing group will also forget the backtrack position. Here it will not take the second alternative into consideration if the first succeeds. (?<name>...) Use named capturing groups which will store under it's number and given name. \k<name> Make a back reference to a named capturing group. \k<-1> Relative back references go back to the group num steps. (?|(a)|(b)|(c)) Branch reset groups will be a non-capturing group which internal groups are not visible or counted to the outside. ### Look ahead/behind¶ Pattern Meaning Description x(?=y) Positive Lookahead Matches x, but only if y will follow without capturing it. x(?!y) Negative Lookahead Matches x, but only if not followed by y. x(?<=y) Positive Lookbehind Matches x, but only if y will follow without capturing it. x(?<!y) Negative Lookbehind Matches x, but only if not followed by y. ### Specialities¶ Pattern Meaning Description (?R) Recursion Matches the complete regular expression at this point again. (?(?=regex)then|else) If-Then-Else Based on regex is matched the expression then or else is evaluated. (?(1)then|else) If-Then-Else Based on numbered group (here 1) is matched the expression then or else is evaluated. ### Modifiers¶ The modifiers control the engine and are given behind the regular expression like /a/i. Or in some languages also inline as /(?i)a/. Modifier Meaning i Case Insensitivity s Dot matches also line breaks m Multiline: ^ and $ match on the start end end of line instead of complete text.
x Free spacing allows to write the regexp over multiple lines for inline documentation and readiness (but a space to match must be escaped \).

## Usage¶

In the POSIX standard, Basic Regular Syntax (BRE) requires that the metacharacters (, ) and {, } be masked  and \{\}, whereas Extended Regular Syntax (ERE) does not.

The most used expression is the Perl Regular Expression Syntax PCRE which is also used in Java, JavaScript, Python, .Net, Ruby and is also available in PHP.

See each language what is possible and how to call it.